Jumat, 31 Desember 2010

Controlling Pest and Diseases of Potato Plant

Look the nutritional content, the potato is the main source of carbohydrates. Potato became the staple food in many western countries. To get more good production of potato also to know about management pest and diseases of this plant.

The basic for successful management of potato pest, diseases and nutritional disorder I integrated crop management. This implies prevention of insect infestation and infection by pathogens through the use of adequate cultural practices and the conservation of natural enemies. Adequate control practices include the selection of healthy planting material from well adapted varieties, rotation, good field sanitation and maintenance of soil fertility. Conservation of natural enemies involves avoidance of pesticide use, enhancement of natural enemy action through favorable cultivation practices and the introduction of natural enemies if necessary.

Many insect species attack potato and the importance of different species varies between agro ecological zones. Within a zone, the importance of species depends on the season; many insect pest are a problem mainly in dry periods

The pest and diseases of potatoes plant as follow:

A. Pest on Potatoes Plant 

1. Caterpillar (Spodoptera litura)
Symptoms: caterpillars attack the leaves by eating the epidermis and the leaf tissue until exhausted.

Mechanically by cutting the leaves that have been plastered with eggs; chemistry with Azordin, Diazinon 60 EC, 50 EC Sumithion.2. Aphids (Aphis Sp)
Symptoms: aphids suck fluids and infect the plant, can also transmit the virus to soybean plants.
Control: a way to cut and burn infected leaves. If so much plant have been infected you can spray with Roxion 40 EC, Dicarzol 25 SP insecticide.

3.  Gryllotalpa
Symptoms: attack the bulbs in the garden, roots, young shoots and young plants. As a result, plants become susceptible to bacterial infections.
Control: Sevin 85 S using the flour mixed with manure.

4. Root weevils (Phtorimae poerculella)
Symptoms: the leaves are dark red and looks like a tangle of yarn that is a gray caterpillar wrapping material. Tubers are attacked when cleaved, would look the pits because most bulbs have been eaten.
Control: chemically using Selecron 500 EC, 25 EC Ekalux, Orthene & 5 SP, Lammnate L.5. Thrips   (Thrips tabaci)
Symptoms: Potato leaves have patches of white, then changed to a silver gray and then dry. The attack starts from the ends of the young leaves.
Control: mechanically by cutting the leaves are affected; chemically using Basudin 60 EC, Mitac 200 EC, Diazenon, Bayrusil Dicarzol 25 EC or 25 SP.

B. Disease of Potato

1. Late blight (Phytopthora infestans fungus).
Symptoms: Small patches occur in green-gray and slightly damp, then these patches will grow and the color changed to brown to black with white edges of the sporangium. The next leaves will rot and die.
Control: Insecticide that can use to control this pest are Antracol 70 WP, Dithane M-45, Brestan 60, Polyram 80 WP, 80 WP Velimek insecticide..
2.Bacterial  Diseases by Pseudomonas solanacearum
Symptoms:  The top of potato young leaves some wilted plants and old leaves, leaf yellowing of the bottom.
Control: Prevent the diseases attacking by keeping the garden sanitation, plant crop rotation. Chemical eradication can use the bactericidal, Agrimycin atu Agrept 25 WP.
3. Root rot disease (Colleotrichum coccodes   )
Symptoms: The leaves turn yellow and curl, then withered and dry. At the plant in the ground there are patches of brown. Infection will cause root rot and young tubers.
Control: Prevent from diseases attacking by crop rotation, sanitation, gardens and the use of good seed.
4. Fusarium Disease  (Fusarium sp.  )
Symptoms: The infection causes tuber rot in tubers that causes plants to wilt. This disease also attacks potatoes in storage. Infection enters through the wounds caused by nematodes / mechanical factors.
Control: Please to avoid injury when weeding. Chemical control with Benlate.
5. Dry spot disease (Early Blight) or Alternaria solani

Fungi diseased are breed in dry areas.
Symptoms: The infected leaves stained irregularly scattered small, dark brown, and then extended to younger leaves. Tuber skin surface irregularly mottled dark, dry, wrinkled and tough.
Control: Prevent from this fungi attacking by crop rotation.
6. Disease due to virus
Viruses that attack are:
- Potato Leaf Roll Virus (PLRV) causes leaf curl;
- Potato Virus X (PVX) causes latent mosaic on the leaves;
- Potato Virus Y (PVY) causing mosaic or local necrosis;
- Potato Virus A (PVA) causes mosaic software, (5) Potato virus M (PVM) causes mosaic roll;
- Potato Virus S (PVS) causing mosaic limp.
Symptoms: in the attack, the plants grow stunted, straight , leaf yellowing and tissue death. The spread of viruses carried by farm equipment, aphids Aphis spiraecola, A. gossypii and Myzus persicae, and Coccinella Epilachna beetles and nematodes.

Control: no pesticides to control the virus, prevention and control is done by planting virus-free seedlings, cleaning equipment, prune and burn diseased plants, eradicate vectors and crop rotation.

Selasa, 07 Desember 2010

Pest and Diseases on Corn Plant

Corn plant consists of roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds. Several types of pests and diseases that often damage maize plants and disrupt the growth of corn and affect productivity include:

Prior to the occurrence of pests and diseases in the corn crop, it can be implemented preventive measures by way of:
a. The use of resistant seed varieties
b. The use of agronomic techniques
c. The use of disinfectants to seeds to be planted
d. Maintenance and utilization of natural enemies

The final step to eradicate plant pests with the use of pesticide materials if the attack had reached the economic threshold or above the economic threshold, in this case must be carried out field research and data collection as well as possible.

1.Lundi pests

This pest attacking plants at the time of growth control by regulating the time of planting, or by using a systemic insecticide, which is sown into the ground, for example Mephosfolan or Carbofuran at a dose of 1.5 kg active ingredient / ha, another way of control is to plant more early.2. Flies Seeds (Antherigona exigua Stein)

This pest attacking the new seeds to grow, control is performed 2-3 days, or the use of insecticides folidol, agrocide, such as the recommended dose (eg 1.5 to 2 cc / liter of water)

3. Land caterpillar (Agrotis sp)

The pest are attack small plants, is controlled by manually by killing caterpillars, or sprinkled Carbopuran soil before planting. The following chemicals are recommended for spraying: carbaryl 0.2 per cent; endosulfan 0.04 per cent, dimethoate 0.03 per cent; quinalphos 0.05 per cent; formothion 0.05 per cent; methyl demeton 0.04 per cent, phosphamidon 0.02 per cent, methyl parathion 0.05 per cent and chlorpyrifos 0.05 per cent.4. Leaf caterpillar (Prodenia litura F)

This pest attacking shoots at 1-month-old plants, should be sprayed with one of the recommended insecticides.The pests being nocturnal in their habits, control operations have to be taken up either during early morning hours or late evening hours or preferably during nights. Spraying or dusting with a persistent insecticide like carbaryl/ endosulfan/quinalphos at 0.1% gives satisfactory results to control the pest.

5. Stem borer (Sesamia inferens Wlk)

This pest attacking plants that are flowering, prevention can be done by spraying the plants before flowering time (with a recommended insecticide and appropriate dosage). Spraying or dusting with a persistent insecticide like carbaryl/ endosulfan/quinalphos at 0.1% gives satisfactory results to control the pest.6. Army worm (Leucania unifenuta HAW)

This pest attacking plants grown in the evening, soon controlled when the attack has reached above the economic threshold. When once the larva mines into the leaf it will be in comparative safety against chemicals, particularly the dust forms. Hence the most rational approach is to treat the crop with penetrating sprays of contact insecticides timing the same either with the light trap information or with the first appearance of a few mines and larval chambers on the plants. Hence vigilance on the part of the farmer goes a long way in the control of this pest. The following chemicals are recommended for spraying: carbaryl 0.2 per cent; endosulfan 0.04 per cent, dimethoate 0.03 per cent; quinalphos 0.05 per cent; formothion 0.05 per cent; methyl demeton 0.04 per cent, phosphamidon 0.02 per cent, methyl parathion 0.05 per cent and chlorpyrifos 0.05 per cent.

7. Cob worm (Heliothis armigera HSN)

This is a plant destroyer of flies, will attack the fruit or corn, spray only when needed, spray a good time is between 6:00 to 9:00 a.m. the morning or in the evening between 16:00 to 18:00.Since the caterpillars in their early instars are gregarious in their feeding habit, collecting the leaves on which they are feeding along with egg mass collection and destroying them is necessary. Dusting with carbaryl or parathion or endosulfan @ 25-30 kg/ha a week after large scale emergence of moths controls the early instars of the caterpillars. However, control of grown up larvae is difficult due to thick growth of hair on their bodies. Spraying with DDVP, fenitrothion, endosulfan, dimethoate or formothion @ 0.1 per cent may control the grown up larvae to a satisfactory extent.

8.  Corn Downy mildew

The diseases in the form of fungi (mushrooms), symptoms arise attack a wide yellow stripe on the leaves, when washed from the seed then any newly emerging young leaves appear yellow, is transmitted through seed or through wind-borne spores. Way control planting resistant varieties, planting simultaneously, mixing sentrimone.9. Helminthosporium diseases

This is fungal diseases with symptoms of an attack form a yellow oval spot at the center and surrounded by a brown color, attacking the leaves, stem and cob, how to avoid the control of continuous cultivation, spraying with a fungicide as per the instructions and recommendations.

In order to maintain the quantity and quality of production of maize farming, the practices to control pests and diseases is important to be implemented. The steps that need to be taken in plant pest control activities should take account of environmental rules and put the principles of integrated pest and disease control.