Selasa, 12 Juni 2012

Coffee Plant Diseases

Here is the most of Coffee Plant Diseases that attack on the crop.

1. Leaf rust disease (HV Disease )

Primarily affects arabica coffee in the lowlands, is caused by a fungus Hemileia vastatrix.
Symptoms: pale yellow spots on leaves that turn dark yellow and covered with powdery spores, especially on the lower leaf surface. The longer the spots enlarge and coalesce, and then dried. In severe attacks around the tree looks yellowish, then the leaves fall, and dead trees.

Control: Plants attacked badly sprayed with Anvil 6650 EC, 250 EC and Benlate Beyleton, then cut down and burned. For prevention, spray plants with fungicides at each ahead of the rainy season, once in three weeks.

2. Upas fungus diseases :

Upas diseases is caused by the salmonicolor fungus , mainly in the humid parts of plants such as the lower branches and twigs.

Symptoms: There is a thin fibrous millennium like a spider’s web, then form a millennium and turned into a reddish nodule. The attacks continued  cause plants to dry, the leaves wilt and hang on the branches.

Control: Reduce humidity by reducing shade; trunk or branch of the pain is still small in size (diameter <1 cm) was cut 10 cm below the base of the part. Pieces of diseased stems and branches are collected and then burned. Stem or branch that pain is quite large in size, if the attack is still early, the pain is quite smeared with fungicides or Copper Sandoz RM Calixin 0.4% formulation or basting fungicide Bordeaux, or porridge Carnolineum 5%. If the attacks had continued, the stem or branch of a sick cut, the rest of the cut branch or stem and branches around RM Calixin smeared with fungicides or Copper Sandoz or basting fungicide or Bordeaux, or porridge Carnolineum 5% in the affected areas.

3.   Black  and Chocolate root disease

Black root disease caused by fungus Rosellina bunodes and R. arcuata, while the brown root disease caused by fungus Fomes.

Symptoms: black root color  and root brown: yellowing leaves, wilting, and hang up, then fall and finally the plant dies.

Control of black root disease and root brown: Unloading coffee tree to its roots and burned; Give 200 g of flour of sulfur in the former pit demolition is inserted into the ground, then stirred and the hole should not be planted for one year; Improve drainage so that water is not stagnant; Isolation of plant affected by making a trench as deep as 1 m around the plant area affected.

4. Brown leaf spots

Brown leaf spot diseases is caused by the fungus Cercospora cafeicola Berk et Cooke.

Symptoms: There is a circular brown spots on leaves, white in the middle and red at the edges. When attacking the fruit, the fruit is black, wrinkled, fall out prematurely. Fruit skin hardens.

Control: reduce the moisture by reducing shade garden, pruning the coffee plants that are not productive, thinning seedlings, improve drainage, cut and burn the affected plants. Chemically spray with fungicide Benlate, Benlate WP T20/20 and Dithane M-45 80 WP, 50 WP 0.2% Bavistin, Cupravit OB 21 0.35%, 0.2% Delsene MX 200 as recommended formulation.

5. Dead End Disease

Coffee diseases are caused by the fungus Rhizoctonia.Symptoms: Leaves on affected branches will turn yellow and fall, then branch off starting from the end.

Control: Prune affected branches (pruning done on the branch that is still healthy), then the clipping burned or buried; Spray the entire plant with a fungicide.

6. Black spots  diseases

This diseases are caused by a fungus Cephaleuros Coffea.
Symptoms: The skin of fruit is not ripe dark patches arise which then extends to the entire leaf and skin of the fruit dry and black. Patches then grow hair on the edges there are grains of fine red plant diseases

Control: Spray with a fungicide when the leaf and fruit in the garden is still very young, but when the fruit should be picked just old and then boiled for processed dry, and burn the infected fruit.

Kamis, 07 Juni 2012

Coffee Plant Pest

North Tapanuli Indonesia is one area that has potential for agricultural development coffee plant since 18 Century age. This area are export this quality coffee product to Europe since this century that mentioned.
But with time running the current production of coffee plants in there decreased one reason is because of pests and diseases.
Therefore, through this article BP4K North Tapanuli try to give the introduction of coffee pests and plant diseases and control.

1. Nematode Parasites

This is parasitic nematodes on coffee plant when at seedling stage. Pratylenchus coffeae and Radopholus similis is an endoparasitic nematodes are sedentary. P.coffeae life cycle of about 45 days and R.similis about 1 month.Symptoms:
Coffee plants are attacked appear stunted, leaves turn yellow and fall. Growth stunted primary branches so that only produce a little flower, flower prematurely and many are empty. Parts of the roots of the fibers rot, brown or black. In severe attacks the plants eventually die.
Control in the nursery: It is recommended to use chemical means is the fumigate fumigant media using pre-seed crops, such as Basamid Vapam G and L. For systemic and contact nematisida al: Curaterr 3G, Vydate 100 U.S., 10G and Rugby 10G.Vydate Rhocap applied by sprayed on the seedlings with a concentration of 1.0% and a dose of 250 ml / seedling.

Control in a plantation: The use of parasitic nematode resistant varieties of coffee. Used as rootstock for example coffee ekselsa (Coffeae exelsa), 121.09 BGN clones of robusta coffee clones and 961 BP. Way of technical culture: opening the planting hole, making crop rotation and barrier trenches.

Biological control: In order to suppress nematode populations using natural enemies in the form of bacterial, fungal and nematode predators.

Chemical control: Several systemic and contact nematisida suggested al Carbofuran (Curaterr 3G-35 g / plant), oksamil (Vydate U.S. 100 1.0% 1 – 2.5 l / plant) and etoprofos (Rhocap 10G – 25 g / plant). Application was repeated every three months.

2. Borer on Coffee Fruit

Adult insect borers in fruit or powdered coffee cherries (BBK), Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) brownish-black, female length about 2 mm and a male 1.3 mm. Eggs are laid in the coffee fruit seeds begin to harden, the age-stage eggs 5-9 days. Long larval stage 10-26 days, pre pupa 2 days and pupal stage 4-9 days. Developmental period from egg to adulthood 25-35 days. Old female insects live on average 156 days and a maximum of 103 days the male insect.

BBK insects get into the coffee fruit by making a hole in the disc. The attack on the young fruit causing the fruit fall, assault on a fairly old fruit causes the coffee beans with holes and defects of low quality.

Control of the technical culture: Breaking the cycle of life BBK, including measures: Pick powder, which started the harvest by picking all the ripe Remove the affected powder of 15-30 days before harvest.

The collection of the coffee fruit that fell on good ground to develop the fruit and the fruit does not develop, then the fruit is also soaked in hot water. Racutan / loot, which is picking all the fruit on the tree at the end of harvest. All fruit picked powders,  and hot water 5 minutes. Setting shade to avoid planting too dark conditions suitable for the development of BBK.
Biological control: Using Cephalonomia stephanoderis parasitoids and fungal pathogens (Beauveria bassiana). B.bassiana application is recommended at a dose of 2.5 kg per hectare solid culture for three applications per crop season.

Vertebrate Pest on Tomato

Vertebrae pest have less impact on tomators that on many crops, but some species may require management or at least vigilance. Voles or (meadow mice) can be a significant problem in tomatoes;they cause damage in the filed and , more importantly, they frequently are pickup mechanical harvester, resulting in serious contaminant problems at processing plant. Birtd, especially horned larks, can reduce stand of direct seeded tomatoes by feeding on your seedling. Rabbits, jackrabbits and ground squirrels are occasional pest in some areas.

The key to managing vertebrae pest is to anticipate problems and to lay out strategy in advance to deal with them. The first step is to survey the land surrounding the filed; few vertebrae pest live year –round  in plowed fields. Most rodent and rabbit infestations begin in nearby crops , pastures aor natural habits, or in weedy febcerows or databanks.

Some vertebrae that damages crops are protected by law and you may need to get special permits before you control them. It is important to identify vertebrates correctly in order to choose suitable control measures and to avoid killing protected species. As you rlocal agricultural commissioner , farm advisor or  an experienced pest control advisor for help in identifying pest species if you are not certain

Pison baits are part of management strategy for certain vertebrate pest. Only permitted number of bait materials currently are available for control of field rodents. These materials fall into two categories : acute poisons that require a single feeding to kill the target pest, and anticoagulant poison that require multiple feeding over several days to kill the target pest. Acute poison baits generally are less expensive than coagulant;however , animals that receive a sub lethal dose ay become nait shy, making any follow –up treatment less effective unless sufficient time passed before the follow-up. Anticoagulant poisons that require multiple feedings are more expensive to use because more bait is needed, but they do not produce bait shyness. If used according to labels directions , hazards to domestic animals and non target wildlife are minimal for both types of baits