Kamis, 14 April 2011

Pests and Diseases on Cultivation of Strawberry

The strawberry plant is an perennial that produces sexually from seed and vegetative  by sending out stems called stolon or runner. Reproduction from seed is uses in breeding new strawberry cultivars, where   vegetative reproduction is used to produce the plants used in commercial agriculture and gardening.

On Strawberry cultivation you can have the problem about pest and diseases. Many pest and diseases  attack  the strawberry when on nursery until the harvest.

1. Aphids (Chaetosiphon fragaefolii)

  • This is the ticks yellow-reddish yellow, small (1-2 mm), live clustered in the lower surface of leaves. This have the symptoms: shoots / leaves wrinkles, curls, the formation of flower / fruit inhibited. You can controlling this pest by Insecticide Fastac 15 EC and Confidor 200 LC.

2. Mites (Tetranychus sp. And Tarsonemus sp.)

  • Mites are small, oval-shaped females, males somewhat triangular shaped and reddish eggs. The symptoms: leaves mottled yellow to brown, curly, dry up and fall. Please to control: Insecticide-EC Committee of 570, Mitac 200 EC or 18 EC Agrimec.

3. Flower weevil (Anthonomus rubi), root weevil (Otiorhynchus rugosostriatus) and stem weevil (O. sulcatus).
The strawberry plant be attacked this pest can looks the symptoms: in the plants that are bored flour. To control: the insecticide Decis 2.5 EC, 400 EC or Curacron Perfekthion 500 EC at the time prior to the flowering phase.
4. White lice (Pseudococcus sp.)
Symptoms if this strawberry plant attacked by this pest is  the plant is covered with white lice will become abnormal. To Control this pest please use Perfekthion chemical insecticide 400 EC or Decis 2.5 EC.
5. Nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae or A. ritzemabosi)
This pest is Living at the base of the plant shoots even up. The Symptoms are plants grow stunted, thin petiole and less hairy. You can control  with nematisida Trimaton U.S. 370, Rugby 10 G or 10 G Nemacur

1. Gray mold (Botrytis cinerea)
Symptoms of this diseases on strwaberry are the fruit rot and brown and dry. You can control with fungicide Benlate or Grosid 50 SD.
2. Ripe fruit rot (Colletotrichum fragariae Brooks)
The Symptoms  wet cook a light brown and the fruit filled with pink spore masses.Control this with a copper fungicide such as Kocide with active AS 80, Funguran 82 WP, Cupravit OB 21.
3. Rizopus rot (Rhizopus stolonifer).
The Symptoms  fruit rot, watery, light brown and when pressed will release the liquid is cloudy; In the storage, fruit infected mushroom mycelium will be covered in white and black spores. You can Control this get rid of the diseased fruit, good post-harvest and cultivation with plastic mulch.You can control of chemical fungicide Dithane M-45 or Antracol 70 WP.
4. Red pith (Phytophthora fragariae Hickman)
The fungus attacks the roots so the plants grow stunted, the leaves are not fresh, especially wilting sometimes during the day.You can control of chemical fungicide Dithane M-45 or Antracol 70 WP.
5. Powdery mildew (Uncinula Necator or Sphaetotheca mascularis).

The symptoms  the affected areas, especially the leaves, covered with a thin layer of powdery white, the flowers will dry up and fall. To Control this fungus with fungicide Benlate or Rubigan 120 EC.
6. Scorched leaves (Diplocarpon earliana or Marssonina fragariae).

The Symptoms are the leaves mottled ovoid to irregularly angled, dark purple. You can control of chemical fungicide Dithane M-45 or Antracol 70 WP.
7. Leaf spot
This diseases caused by Ramularia tulasnii or Mycosphaerella fragariae, The symptoms that you can observe are have  small dark purple spots on the leaves. Center for brown spots that will turn white;
8. Late blight (Phomopsis obscurans).
This symptoms of diseases are have stain gray bull surrounded by red, purple, and then wound-like stains form a V. To Control this disease using with Dithane M-45, Antracol Daconil 70 WP or 75 WP.
9. Vertisillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae)
Symptoms can looks are the infected leaves yellowish to brown, wilted and dead plants. Please Control through gas fumigation with Basamid-G.
10. Virus
These Aphids transmitted through insect or mite. The Symptoms are the leaf color changes from green to yellow (khlorosis) along the bone or leaf spots (motle), the leaves become wrinkled, stiff, stunted plants. You can control use virus-free seed, destroying infected plants, spraying pesticides to control insects carrying the virus. Prevention of pests and diseases can generally be done by keeping a clean garden / crop, planted in unison (to break the cycle of life), planting the seeds of a healthy, providing the recommended fertilizer so the plants grow healthy, do not crop rotation to plant and prune the Rosaceae family of plants / revoke the plant. Cultivate strawberries with plastic mulch will also suppress the growth of pests / diseases. Especially for diseases, improvement of drainage usually can decrease attack.

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